A Robust Low-overhead Watermarking for Field Authentication of Intellectual Property Cores

Jing Long1, Dafang Zhang1, Chen Zuo1, Jiajun Duan2 and Weihong Huang1

  1. College of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University
    Changsha, Hunan, 410082, China
  2. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Lehigh University
    18015, Bethlehem, USA


Most of existing field programmable gate array (FPGA) based watermarking algorithms have two primary weaknesses, large overhead and robustness. In this work, a robust low-overhead watermarking algorithm is proposed for intellectual property (IP) protection. The ownership is split into orderly small watermarks. The watermark positions are generated by the watermarks. Location mapping is performed to each position to make it not leak in verification. The real content of embedded watermarks is compressed to be one third of the original number. The configuration of small watermark has left lots of space for correcting. So, it can locate the attackers by checking each watermark. The experimental results illustrate a low-overhead on resource and delay. The efficiency and robustness of the proposed scheme are encouraging.

Key words

FPGA, IP protection, low-overhead, location mapping, correcting

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


Publication information

Volume 13, Issue 2 (June 2016)
Year of Publication: 2016
ISSN: 1820-0214 (Print) 2406-1018 (Online)
Publisher: ComSIS Consortium

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How to cite

Long, J., Zhang, D., Zuo, C., Duan, J., Huang, W.: A Robust Low-overhead Watermarking for Field Authentication of Intellectual Property Cores. Computer Science and Information Systems, Vol. 13, No. 2, 609–622. (2016), https://doi.org/10.2298/CSIS160210018L