Rule based strategies for large extensive-form games: A specification language for No-Limit Texas Hold’em agents

Luís Filipe Teófilo1, 2, Luís Paulo Reis1, 3, Henrique Lopes Cardoso1, 2 and Pedro Mendes2

  1. LIACC – Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science Lab.
    R. Campo Alegre 1021 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
  2. FEUP – Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto – DEI
    Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
  3. EEUM – School of Engineering, University of Minho – DSI
    Campus de Azurém 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal,,


Poker is used to measure progresses in extensive-form games research due to its unique characteristics: it is a game where playing agents have to deal with incomplete information and stochastic scenarios and a large number of decision points. The development of Poker agents has seen significant advances in one-on-one matches but there are still no consistent results in multiplayer and in games against human experts. In order to allow for experts to aid the improvement of the agents’ performance, we have created a high-level strategy specification language. To support strategy definition, we have also developed an intuitive graphical tool. Additionally, we have also created a strategy inferring system, based on a dynamically weighted Euclidean distance. This approach was validated through the creation of simple agents and by successfully inferring strategies from 10 human players. The created agents were able to beat previously developed mid-level agents by a good profit margin.

Key words

expert systems, knowledge representation, decision support systems, computer poker, rule based strategies, specification language

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Publication information

Volume 11, Issue 4 (October 2014)
Special Issue on Advances in Systems, Modeling, Languages and Agents
Year of Publication: 2014
ISSN: 1820-0214 (Print) 2406-1018 (Online)
Publisher: ComSIS Consortium

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How to cite

Teófilo, L. F., Reis, L. P., Cardoso, H. L., Mendes, P.: Rule based strategies for large extensive-form games: A specification language for No-Limit Texas Hold’em agents. Computer Science and Information Systems, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1249–1269. (2014),